All you Need to know about Brain Tumor

A brain tumor is a condition that is caused when abnormal cells in the brain grow within the brain or the spinal cord. It can be life threatening because it can disrupt brain functioning. There are two types of brain tumors, ones that are benign (cancerous) and malignant (malignant). The life expectance varies depending upon the stage of the cancer.

Benign Tumors – This tumor grows slowly and does not spread to other tissues, thus is not cancerous in nature.
Malignant Tumor – This tumor grows very fast and contains cancerous cells that invade other parts of the brain and is considered to be life threatening condition.
Brain Tumors are also classified as primary and secondary tumors depending on their origin. If the tumor starts in the brain it is known as primary tumor and if it originates from some other part of the body, it is known as secondary or metastatic tumor.

Brain Tumor - signs

Symptoms
The symptoms of brain tumor depending upon the type of tumor and the origin of it. The symptoms are mild initially and gradually increase. Sometimes there may be no symptoms at all. Some common symptoms –
Headache that persists
Nausea, vomiting and drowsiness
Speech issues
Memory Issues
Seizures or convulsions
Personality Change
Coordination Change

Diagnosis
Diagnosis involves various tests to be carried out including the following

EEG – An electroencephalogram is used to record brain activities for abnormalities if any using electrodes that are attached to the head.

CT Scan – It gives a detailed X ray picture of the patient’s brain

MRI Scan – It makes use of magnetic field as well as radio waves and provides a detailed image of the brain
Even biopsy is used to further confirm the presence of a tumor.

Treatment
The treatment depends on the diagnosis. It includes factors like type of tumor, age of the patient, size of the tumor, tolerance levels of the patient to name a few.

Surgery – The first course of treatment for Cancer starts with surgery and removal of the tumor or a part of it as much as possible. They take care that the neigh-boring tissues are not harmed. The remaining tumor is removed with the help of various cancer therapies,

Chemotherapy – Chemotherapy is used for treating serious type of malignant tumors. It stops the cells from multiplying or duplicating.

Radiation Therapy – Radio therapy uses intense energy beams to destroy the tumor and prevent it from growing. It attacks the tumor cells, leading to shrinkage in the tumor which can be further be managed using immune system of a person.

Radio Surgery – Also known as stereotactic radio surgery (SRS), this involves giving a targeted and precise dose in the form of an X-ray radiation.

Risk Factors – There is no definite reason behind brain tumors. It might be hereditary but in rare cases. The only risk factor associated with brain tumor is radiation exposure.

Survival – The survival rate post the diagnosis also depends on a lot of factors but for malignant tumors of primary type the 5 year rate is around less than 35%.

RRMCH is one the best hospitals in Bangalore and it are also the best Neuro hospital in India. It has got the best neurologist in Bangalore

High Belly Fat is Equal To Low Vitamin D – Know More?

A recent study has revealed that bigger waistline and high level of belly fat is a sign of lower levels of Vitamin D. We all know that Vitamin D is known to be one of the most important minerals of the body and is responsible for a varied roles. It does protect your body against cancer, diabetes, hair-loss as well as heart failure. Though it is related to bone health it does have a role to play in areas of autoimmune diseases and respiratory tract infections, to name a few.

High Belly Fat is Equal To Low Vitamin D

Indian population is said to have deficiency of Vitamin D on an epidemic scale with around 70 – 100 percent of the population is known to have Vitamin D Deficiency. While the link between Obesity and lower Vitamin D levels are always known, a team of researchers tried to dig into the details and understand more on the location as well as the type of role it plays. The study was based on the data of thousands of women from Epidemiology of obesity study of Netherlands.

The researching team concentrated on total fat that included belly fat (abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue) under the skin (visceral adipose tissue) as well as in the liver (hepatic fat) and around the organs. They even made necessary adjustments around data with respect to education level, chronic disease, smoking, alcohol intake and physical activity levels.

The study found that abdominal fat had the greatest effect of lower vitamin D levels while both abdominal fat as well as total fat were linked to the deficiency in vitamin D. The other fact that came forth was in both males and females higher belly fat pointed to lower Vitamin D levels.

The study also revealed that people who have bigger waistlines are at a higher risk of developing Vitamin D deficiency and need to check up their Vitamin D levels as well. The study also sort answers around questions like the reason behind the Vitamin D Deficiency, whether it was because the belly fat increased or was it that the deficiency resulted in the fat being stored in the belly part. Even though it’s tricky to draw a conclusion on why there is an association between vitamin D levels and obesity but one point is clear that there is apparently a strong association and that vitamin D has a definite role to play in terms of fat storage in the abdomen and function

Dark Spot on the sclera of eye? What is it!

When there is any sort of a spot on the sclera, it is prominent because of the white background. Hence, it catches your notice mostly within no time of surfacing. So, if you are one of those who has recently discovered a spot on the white area of your eye or sclera as it is called, then here’s what you need to know about the same.
Usually these freckles or spots are harmless but if it has occurred suddenly out of the blue, then it’s advisable to consult an ophthalmologist because it could be a sign of something critical or cancer as well.

Dark Spot on the sclera of eye

SPOTS, TYPES AND CAUSES
These spots unlike moles are more of a lesion or nevus, mostly flat or may be slightly raised in either black, pink or brown color. Sometimes this nevus could be pigmentation free as well. This nevus could also occur in tissue beneath the retina and needs a special lamp to view.

Also known as pigmented tumors, these spots or freckles are almost harmless. The most common of the eye tumors is Congenital nevi besides others like conjunctival melanoma and melanosis. Nevi is caused due pigmentation cells or over growth of melanocytes. Most of the people who have nevi have it since their birth or it surfaces in their early childhood itself. Usually the spot might not be noticeable until puberty because at this age it becomes bigger and darker too.

While primary acquired melanosis usually occurs in the middle to people with fair skin and suddenly too.
The most – rare form is the Conjunctival melanosis and either occurs suddenly or as primary acquired melanosis.

TREATMENT
As per the eye cancer network most eye pigmented lesions are benign in nature and practically harmless. But, the eye specialists need to monitor these lesions to check for any signs of shape change and growth. Particular attention needs to be paid on whether the lesion extends to the cornea or develops and increase in blood supply. As compared to malignant lesions the benign nevi grows at a slower rate. In case there is any change in shape or size of the lesion the doctor might advise a biopsy but congenital nevi becoming cancerous is extremely rare even if it shows change in shape or size.

Well, dark spots in the sclera are usually not a matter of grave concern but it’s always advisable that you consult your ophthalmologist to get a clear idea of the lesion or nevi and further line of action.

Ebola Virus – Recent International Outbreak

The Ebola virus is responsible for spread of Ebola haemorragic fever, a rare diseases that is found in Africa with a mortality rate of 25% to 90%. The transmission of the virus is possible human to human through direct contact with blood as well as bodily fluids. The outbreak first occurred in the year 1976 in the Democratic Republic of Congo. As of now most of the outbreaks have been spotted in Africa only.

ebola-virus

Symptoms
The initial symptoms of Ebola haemorrhagic fever are misleading as they are same as any conditions like malaria or common cold. It starts suddenly accompanied with fatigue, lack of appetite, nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea (contain mucus or blood sometimes). The second stage is when the symptoms aggravate and lead to bleeding skin, gums and nose, blood vomits and stools. The patient could also show symptoms like sore throat, swallowing issues and skin rashes.

Risk Factors
If a person comes in direct contact with the secretions, bodily fluids, organs or blood of the infected living or dead organisms. Though in the initial stage of symptomatic patients the risk is very low. It can also spread through unprotected sexual contact with a recovered ebola infected patient too.
Though it is transmitted through droplets but a casual contact cannot lead to an infection unless there is any contact with bodily fluids. Though most of these infections are human to human but there have been cases where handling dead animals like chimpanzees, bats, wild animals or bush meat has lead to the same.

Mortality Rate
The mortality rate of patients infected with ebola is said to be very high as much as 25% to 90%.

Treatment
As of now there is no vaccine and no treatment for the ebola haemorragic fever and only supportive care is the offered treatment in order to provide relief from side effects of any arising complications.
Preventive Measures
In order to breaking the transmission chain. The suspected people and the people who have come in close contact with the infected people need to be kept under supervision.
• To prevent yourself from contracting ebola stay away from infected people.
• Avoid close contact or contact with bodily fluids of the infected deceased.
• Wash hands with soap and antiseptics on a regular basis
• Avoid consuming bush meat and contact with wild animals like rodents, bats, monkeys, forest antelopes dead or alive.

Cataract Surgery – What All You Need To Know?

Though cataracts are a common amongst people over 65 years, they can happen in one or both even in the age group of 50 plus. Cataracts are common because they are only a result of aging process. Cataract causes the lens in our eye to become cloudy and results into vision loss inspite of wearing spectacles. This can happen in one eye or both as well. The cataract surgery is performed to remove the cloudy lens and replace it with an artificial lens known as intraocular lens in order to restore clarity in vision. It is a very simple and speedy surgery which requires just around 15-20 minutes of time. No overnight stay is required and the patient is discharged the same day within few hours of the surgery.

The cataract surgery performed these days is a very advanced one known a phacoemulsification or ‘phaco’ carried out using a high frequency ultrasound device that has the ability to break down the cloudy lens into pieces. These are then removed gently from the eye with the help of suction. ‘Phaco’ has greatly reduced the complications of eyes which the earlier surgeries had a risk part of it, besides the advantage of faster healing.

Cataract Surgery

The process typically includes the surgeon removing the cloudy lens from the eye and then inserting the intraocular lens and positioning is properly behind the pupil and iris exactly at the location of the natural lens. It very rare but sometimes in special cases the lens is placed in the front of the iris and pupil instead of the back. The procedure is concluded by closing the incision in the eye with a stitch or sometimes without it. In order to further protect the eye in the early stages of the surgery, a shield is placed over it as well.

Cataract Surgery – After Care

  • The eye drops provided by the doctor have to be used as per the doctor’s recommendation so as to avoid watering or itching.
  • Regular day to day activities can be performed as usual but some of them need to be restricted. Activities like reading, watching TV, walking and writing can be done but activities like lifting heavy loads, bending a lot and likes need to be restricted.
  • Do not perform strenuous exercises but light can do.
  • Wear your protective eye covering all the time even when sleeping. Do not sleep on the side of the operated eye.
  • Avoid water contact with the eyes during bath or shower.
  • Do not rub your eyes because it can cause infection.
  • Restrict yourself from swimming for atleast two weeks.
  • Do not drive for atleast 24 hours after surgery.
  • Avoid wearing any kind of eye makeup as well until your doctor permits.

 

RRMCH one of the best ophthalmology/eye hospitals in Bangalore for LASIK operations, Dr Vijay Kumar Srivastava eye specialist in bangalore