Top 5 Medical Tourism Destinations in the World

We all know about the recent spurt in medical Tourism, but what you might not know and perhaps, would want to know is,  names of the countries that top this list. Before we look into that, here’s some information on medical tourism. As per international statistics, 11 million people from the USA opted for medical tourism in 2016. Now, that is a huge number. Furthermore, the medical tourism industry is slated to grow by 25% in the coming years. People are choosing medical tourism alternative for reasons like quality healthcare at impressive costs, convenience and more. Lets run-down 5 of the most sought-after medical tourism destinations in the world.

BRAZIL – As per World Health Organization, Brazil tops the list of medical tourism destinations in the world. With over 40 JCI accredited hospitals and world’s best experts under their belts, Brazil is a one-stop solution for healthcare needs around cosmetic and plastic surgery. The reason it is third on the list of most visited countries for cosmetic and plastic surgery is due to its quality services at affordable rates.

MEXICO – Mexico is one of the most preferred destinations for medical healthcare as it is known to reduce the medical costs by a staggering 40% to 65%. It boasts of over 98 JCI accredited hospitals and offers advanced treatment procedures in areas of cosmetic surgery and dentistry. Most of the people residing in the USA are known to travel to Mexico for their healthcare needs.

INDIA – India is brimming with medical tourists as on day and the reason it stands in this list is its ability reduce healthcare costs by a mammoth 65% to 90% as compared to the USA, making it one of the most visited countries for healthcare services. India is a preferred location not only due to its affordability or quality healthcare services but because there is zero waiting time for scheduling surgeries and living here is a relaxing experience as well.

THAILAND – The land of the white elephants as it is known, Thailand is also famous for its pristine beaches. But many of us aren’t aware of the fact that it is also a popular destination for medical tourism. You can not only reduce your medical expenditure by 50% to 75% but also avail facilities like private recovery gardens, Thai massage and other relaxation therapies at affordable prices.

TURKEY – The reason Turkey is on the list of most favored destinations for medical tourism is that it offers zero waiting times for services of healthcare particularly like transplant, neurosurgery, genomic medicine, radiation therapy for cancer. The Turkish airlines also offers discounts for medical tourists and the best part is the bottom line –  you end up saving around 50% to 65% of your money as compared to the USA.

Well, healthcare has broadened its horizons and is available across borders at affordable prices. Hence, umpteen people across countries are opting for medical tourism.

Medical College Admission 2018 – MBBS-MS-MD-PhD

With the onset of summer in India, students start getting ready for their board exams and even start head hunting for colleges in India to pursue their dream careers. Well, Indians are slowly evolving and the mindset of medical stream or medicine being the only choice to succeed in Life is slowing fading away from the minds of many educated souls. Having said that, there is still a major chunk of parents in India who feel that the first career choice is nothing better than medicine. True to a certain extent for it offers a career path that is so rewarding since ages.

Now that it’s time of the year when parents of students aspiring a career in medicine are shortlisting or have already shortlisted medical colleges as per their choice, let talk about a possibility that stands out in health education.
RRMCH is an endeavor of Moogambigai Charitable and Educational Trust, established in 1992 with an objective of bringing about academic excellence in Karnataka. RRMCH has a holistic approach towards education and gives equal importance to extracurricular activities together with academics.

MBBS Admissions 2018-19

Spread across a wide spanning campus of 25 acres, the college and hospital are nestled in South West Bangalore. An institutional member of the International Medical Sciences Academy, IMSA, a global body that aims in upgrading medical standards around the world, RRMCH is also recognized by the MCH and is affiliated to RGUHS.

RRMCH has a 1300 bed hospital which provides an easy window for practical learning besides digitally equipped classrooms, auditorium, Bank, intensive care unit, Central research laboratory with state of the art facilities to name a few. The laboratory in collaboration with renowned international institutions carries out numerous research programs. Furthermore, RRMCH also houses a medical museum, that showcases over 300 dissected specimens and 1000 plus models of pathology and anatomy. No wonder it is a NAAC A Accredited college and a leader in health education in Bangalore.

RRMCH offers undergraduate and post graduate course in medicine which include undergraduate, post graduate, doctoral programs and paramedical as well as super specialty courses.

MBBS – RRMCH offers MBBS course of 4.5 years plus 1 year compulsory rotating internship

MD – Doctor in Medicine program can be done in subjects namely Anatomy, Anaesthesia, Bio-Chemistry, Community Medicine, Dermatology, Forensic Medicine, General medicine, Microbiology, Pathology, Paediatrics, Pharmacology, Physiology, Psychiatry, Radio Diagnosis and Respiratory Medicine.

MS – RRMCH offers MS in subjects namely ENT, General Surgery, OBG, Opthalmology and Orthopaedics.

PhD– RRMCH offers PhD in Physiology course

Paramedical Courses – Paramedical courses under RRMCH include Diploma in Medical Laboratory Technology, Operation Theatre Technology, X Ray Technology, Health Inspection, Ophthalmic Technology and Medical Record Technology

Super Specialty Courses – RRMCH also offers super specialty courses in DM – Cardiology, MCH in Urology, Plastic Surgery and Pediatric Surgery and super specialty course in Neurology.

Well, if you are also one of those parents of students looking out to make it big in the world of medicine, RRMCH definitely is one of the institutions that can help you pave the way to success in the healthcare arena. Medical college admission for the year 2018-19 are now open at RRMCH.

Contact for more info: 

No.202, Kambipura, Mysore Road,
Bengaluru-560 074.

Phone: 2843 7444/ 2843 7777
Fax       : 080-2843 7393
E mail id:enquiry@rrmch.org
info@rrmch.org

http://www.rrmch.org

Another Step Towards Preventing Heart Disease – A Vaccine To Lower Cholesterol Levels

The word cholesterol has always been able to raise eyebrows of people because the rising levels of cholesterol is a factual indicator of growing heart disease. While there has been a lot of research and development in the field of cardiac study, here is some further news around the same. Well, lowering cholesterol for a healthy heart is a known fact. We all know how high levels of low density lipo-protein (LDL), also known as bad cholesterol can lead to a stroke due to atherosclerosis or the build up of plaque in the arteries thereby clogging them.

Now, we have this vaccine named Ato4A that has the ability to lower cholesterol levels in the body. It is a cholesterol lowering vaccine by nature and its role is to induce the antibodies production against an enzyme by name PCSK9 responsible for preventing the LDL cholesterol clearance from blood. It apparently attacks the PCSK9 enzyme and reduces the buildup of LDL cholesterol.

Preventing Heart Disease

The vaccine has already been experimented on mice. After feeding the mice with high cholesterol based western food for a while in order to increase atherosclerosis. The findings clearly showed some amazing results.
While the total lowering in cholesterol was a whooping 53%, the reversal of the atherosclerotic damage to blood vessels was a startling 64% and reduction in the biological markers of blood vessel inflammation by 21-28%. The researchers also found that the antibodies were functional throughout the study with increased levels of concentrations towards the end of it.

The PROCESS
Now, the PCSK9 protein is responsible for blocking the LDL cholesterol receptors. Due to this our body fails to get rid of this Cholesterol from blood. When the vaccine Ato4a is injected in the body it starts producing antibodies that in turn block the PSCK9’s function. As a result the activity of LDL cholesterol receptors increases.

A notable difference though between the conventional vaccines and Ato4A is that usually the antibodies in conventional vaccines are only specific to foreign bacterial and viral proteins. While Ato4A induces antibodies against body proteins.

Thus, as per researchers the next step was to take the study forward to human beings and see how the results fare. If it works then surely, this discovery of sorts is going to help fight heart diseases and stroke more effectively in the times to come.

Dr. H. P. Prabhuswamy, MBBS, MS, M. CH, FICC, FIACS, Cardiac Surgery, Professor & HOD, Dept. of CTVS, RRMCH and team conducted a Minimally Invasive Cardiac Surgery.

Stevens Johnson Syndrome

This syndrome has been named after the pediatricians AM Stevens and SC Johnson who were the first to diagnose a reaction of eye and mouth due to a drug in the year 1922. It is a rare disorder or condition but does serious damage to the mucus membranes besides the skin. Abbreviated as SJS, it is a medical emergency known as toxic epidermal necrolysis which requires immediate attention and medical care as it is known to be one of the most adverse drug reactions recognized in USA. The affected groups include Elderly and the children.

This condition causes swelling of face and lips with red and purple rash that blisters on the face accompanied by crusty lip sores. In case the eyes catch it then it can cause vision issues and corneal ulcers.

Genetic Issues – If a close family member has suffered from SJS, there is high possibility of SJS risk. There is a strong connection particularly with the Asian population between HLA-A 33:03 and HLA-C 03:03 alleles as well as allopurinol induced SJS or TEN.

Causes because of medication reactions
Usually the reaction to a certain drug appears within a week of starting the course but with some medications like anti-convulsants, the reaction might take as long as a month to surface. The antibiotics that are particularly on the list to cause SJS are Penicillins like bacampicillin and amoxicillin, cephalosporins like cephalexin and cefaclor, macrolides like azithromyvin, erythromycin and clarithromycin. Some anticonvulsantsare used for treating peilepsy, allopurinol used for gout treatment, Nevirapine for treating HIV infections, Acetaminphen, an all age group medication.

Immunity Issues – If you have an immune system that is weak like HIV infection, due to organ transplant or chemotherapy and more could increase the risk of SJS

Infections that Predispose to SJS
The viral infections that are known to precede SJS include influenza, Hepatitis A, mums, HIV and more while the bacterial include conditions like typhoid, brucellosis, mycoplasma pneumonia to name a few. Malaria and trichomoniasis are the protozoal infections.

Previous infections – There is a high risk of SJS recurring if the same medication of the same group has been used earlier and has been responsible for causing SJS infection.

Symptoms
It primarily looks like an upper respiratory tract infection, cold or cough, headache, body pain and sore throat
It is followed by blisters on the skin, mouth, nose, ears and genitals as well. The rashes are red or purple in color and with the progress of the conditons may tend to merge as well as rupture thus exposing sores that are painful. Further, the top skin layer forms a crust and sheds.

The face and lips swell and mouth catches ulcers. The lips form a crusty sore and due to the ulcer buildup in the mouth, its becomes difficult to swallow. If there are ulcers in the digestive tract, they may cause diarrhea and even dehydration.

Diagnosis
There are two ways by which the Stevens Johnson syndrome can be diagnosed.
1. Clinical Examination – The target rash characteristic plays an important role in diagnosis of SJS but to study the predisposing factor a complete clinical history is checked.
2. Skin biopsy – Sometimes even a skin biopsy could be needed to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment –

The patient needs immediate hospitalization because it is considered to be a medical emergency. The first step is to stop the medications responsible for SJS. For treating the infection that is already developing, local antiseptics and antibiotics are used.

To stop the condition from getting worse and spreading, intravenous immunoglobulins are given.
The eye treatment involves artificial tears and lubricants so that the surface drying stops. Even antibiotics, antiseptics and topical fluids are used in order to prevent inflammation as well as infection.
For women suffering from the condition intravaginal steriod oinments are used for preventing scar tissue formation
Painkillers/ Analgesics for relief
Psychological consultancy for emotional stability and anxiety if the need be.

Prevention
If some close relative has developed SJS its important to know the drug that caused it and try and avoid that drug so as to prevent it
These days medicalert bracelets are available so that the health professional who treats come to know about any emergency situation.

Genetic testing is rarely carried out and might be suggested only in cases of South East Asian and Indian descent.
It is known that of the one third cases diagnosed with Stevens Johnson syndrome, the recurrence does occur and hence it is important to stay informed about the medications that might just not be suitable for intake for this condition.

Know More about – Best Medical Colleges in Bangalore

*Source from the internet

What is Simulation? – Simulator Aided Inter Disciplinary Workshop

What is Simulation?

Simulation is a technique to replace or amplify real-patient experiences with guided experiences. Various types of simulators are used to train and assess different levels of learners. These include mannequin simulators, human cadaver or animal models, computer-based simulation, haptic and/or virtual simulation, as well as simulation using standardized patients. Simulation has been an accepted part of training, assessment and research in high-reliability organizations, such as aviation, nuclear power, and military. Healthcare has adopted simulation from these fields for the purpose of training healthcare providers. Simulation-based learning has been used to shorten the gap that exists between the learning environment and the real clinical environment. Many skill trainers have been developed to actualize real clinical site especially for novice residents .

Utilization of simulatiors has many advantages for medical education:
1) learning can be focused on the level of trainees with various levels of difficulties;
2) learners can either learn the whole procedure process or just focus on certain tasks of the procedure;
3) learners have the opportunity to repetitively practice in quick succession;
4) learners learn in a safe environment where they can be allowed to learn from their mistakes rather than be rescued by their supervisor to keep the patient safe;
5) simulators can provide objective evidence of performance, offering potential for their use for assessment, both formative and summative;
6) simulation can provide practice on certain procedures such as cricothyrotomy, which is a critical life-saving procedure that is uncommon and rarely performed by residents.

Simulation has a potential to promote a new paradigm compared to traditional education tools. Technical skills and non-technical skills can be taught to residents via a standardized and organized simulation program teams.

Simulation based teaching workshop by the department of Anaesthesia and critical care was conducted on 7Th and 8th of Dec 2017.The whole programme had audio-video facilities.The whole process was beamed to the another class room in the Ist floor of the college building.

After the invocation, Dr, Sahajananda welcomed the gathering and the Guest faculty from Perth and Melbourne, Australia.
The guest faculty addressed the gathering and gave introductory lecture.

There were two case scenarios on 7th.
1.A pregnant patient with RTA having sustained chest and pelvic injuries. 16 participants were split into two groups and ask to conduct the management of the case.
2.Pregnant patient with severe PIH
After the procedure the defbreefing was done by the faculty namely: Parasad B Achar and Sunanda Gargeswari,in the ist floor class room. Detailed discussions were also held.
On 8th Dec 2017:

Dr. Sahajanand welcomed the gathering and delegates.He also introduced the guest faculty Dr.Shashikanth Manikappa from Melbourne.
Delegates were split into two batches.There were two case scenarios:
Patient with sepsis and septic shock
Patient in the OT who developed Anaphylaxix.

After the procedure the defbreefing was done by the faculty namely: Dr. Shashikanth and Sahajananda H, in the Ist floor class room. Detailed discussions were also held.

The whole programme was well attended by the residents and faculty from Surgery, Orthopedics, OBG, General Medicine and Pulmonary medicine.

 

Date : 7th Dec 2017 and 8th Dec 2017

Time : 2:00 pm to 6:00 pm

Venue : College first floor lecture hall & Kadamba Auditorium (College auditorium)

Speaker : Dr B. G. Prasad Achar & Ms Sunanda Achar, Melbourne, Australia

All You Need To Know About White Tongue

Known to cause a greyish- white coating on the tongue, this condition called White tongue is a common and generally harmless symptom that could indicate a serious condition. Rarely serious conditions like cancer causes white tongue.

White Tongue

Causes
Lack of Brushing of flossing or doing it in an improper way.
Lack of regular Tongue cleaning or doing it improperly.
Addictions like alcohol, smoking and chewing tobacco
Dry mouth that is a result of sleeping with open mouth or mouth breathing

Dehydration
Irritation due to sharp edges resulting form dentures or braces inside the mouth
Though there are certain conditions that are caused inspite of maintaining oral hygiene. These include conditions like oral thrush, Oral lichen planus and Leukoplakia.

Oral Thrush – This is a type of fungal infection caused by candida yeast. Patches develop on the tongue and mouth. White or off white in color, they can be painful and also have unpleasant taste. Oral thrush usually occurs in people with low immunity or those who have undergone a recent chemotherapy treatment or taken antibiotics. Some other causes include inhalation of asthma related medications like corticosteroids and diabetes.
Treatment – Anti-fungal medicines like oral drops are used for its treatment for a couple of weeks.

Syphillis – Also known as sexually transmitted condition (STI), if left untreated it can lead to white tongue as well as mouth sores.
Treatment – Pencillin is used for its treatment for reducing the disease causing bacteria

Oral Lichen Planus – An inflammatory condtion, Oral Lichen planus causes white patches thick in the mouth and on the tongue accompanied with painful cheek, gums as well as ulcers.
Treatment – Generally monitored but in serious cases croticosteriods are used.

Leukoplakia – This condition is a result of addictions caused by irritants like alcohol and tobacco or even due to dentures. They are harmless mostly but still a diagnosis is important to check out the rare possibility of complications.
Treatment – Continuous monitoring to avoid it from spreading further

Home Remedies
There are a few home based remedies that can help you fight the condition. These include use of probiotic foods like kimchi, konbucha and more, using baking soda while brushing teath and tongue cleaning. Consumption of raw garlic and scraping tongue properly for removal of bacteria.

Prevention
The best possible solution is maintaining proper oral hygiene backed with regular oral checkups other than that it is not always possible to get away from it.

Know More About RRMCH

Worlds Breastfeeding Week – RRMCH Bangalore

RRMCH, Department of Pediatrics celebrated the “Worlds Breast Feeding Week” from 1st Aug 2017 to 7th Aug 2017.

World breast feeding week 2017 has been observed in department, under the guidance of Dr. Adarsh, Prof and HOD, Department of pediatrics RRMCH. We also celebrated one year anniversary of our Human Milk Bank.

Worlds Breast Feeding Week

1st August 2017 we had inauguration of world breastfeeding week in pediatric OPD at 11am. Started with lighting of the lamp from Dr. Govindaraju, Medical Superintendent, Dr. Adarsh, prof and HOD of pediatrics, Dr. R.Prema, Professor of Pediatrics, Dr. Shashikala, Prof and HOD of community medicine, Dr. Nagarathanna ,Prof and HOD of OBG, RRMCH.

02nd August 2017, we went to the community camp in rural health training centre in Chunchunkuppe. We organized programme for the breastfeeding mother in our community health centre. We shared the thoughts with mothers regarding breastfeeding and importance of it, Dr. Sahana Associate Professor and Dr. Yashitha Junior Resident, narrated about the theme “A Sustaining breastfeeding together” to the mothers.

03rd of august 2017 we conducted the quiz competition regarding the breast feeding for postgraduates of pediatrics, OBG,P&SM and medical students of our college, there was tough competition between all 5teams, and the winners were Dr. Vidhi and Dr. Apoorva from department of pediatrics.

4th August 2017, we had collage competition regarding the breastfeeding for medical students and nursing students, Out of 5 teams participated in the competition nursing students were emerged as winner.

5th August 2017, we oriented the mothers in PNC regarding the importance of Breastfeeding. We also narrated about the theme “A Sustaining breastfeeding together” to the mothers. Our breastfeeding counselor S/n Thayimudamma demonstrated the techniques of breast feeding and had interaction session.

7th August 2017 the breastfeeding awareness skit was presented by 3 groups from community medicine, 7th term medical Students and Nursing Students participated.
We conclude the programme, World breastfeeding week 2017 with great success.

We celebrated ORS day on 29 July 2017, programme was conducted in our OPD and pediatric wards to highlight the importance of Oral Rehydration Salts (ORS) and its significance in the treatment of dehydration.

Excessive loss of fluids and electrolytes in the body causes dehydration. Conditions like vomiting, diarrhea, and diseases which cause diarrhea such as bacterial or viral infection, cholera, food poisoning, unhygienic feeding practices can increase the chances of dehydration.

Dr. Adarsh, Prof and HOD had inaugurated the programme. We created the awareness programme in parents and distributed the ORS to the children.

This programme helped the parents to know more about dehydration difficulties and how to prevent the problem.

We gave a demo on How to make the ORS drink which is available in powder form?

1.Put the contents of the ORS packet in a clean container. Check the packet for directions and add the amount of clean water as indicated. Too little water could make the diarrhea worse.

2.Add water only. Do not add ORS to milk, soup, fruit juice or any soft drinks. Do not add sugar.

3.Stir well, and feed it to the child from a clean cup. Do not use a bottle.

ORS Day

ORS Day is celebrated every year on 29th July to highlight the importance of Oral Rehydration Salts (ORS) as a cost-effective method of health intervention. Acute diarrhoeal diseases are one of the leading causes of mortality in infants and young children in many developing countries. According to WHO, Diarrhoeal disease is the second leading cause of death in children under five years old. Diarrhoea, which is frequently caused by poor sanitation and hygiene, can have serious, even deadly results, typically as a result of diarrhoea-related dehydration. It particularly affects infants, children and old people. Diarrhoea generally lasts for several days, and leaves the body without water and salts that are necessary for survival. Most people who die from diarrhoea actually die from severe dehydration and fluid loss from the body.

Dehydration from diarrhoea can be prevented by giving extra fluids at home, or it can be treated simply and effectively by giving adequate glucose-electrolyte solution called Oral Rehydration Salts (ORS) solution. ORS Jodi (ORS and Zinc) has proven to be successful in the prevention and management of acute diarrhoea and dehydration. Oral rehydration salts contain a variety of salts (electrolytes) and sugar. The combination of electrolytes and sugar stimulates water and electrolyte absorption from the gut. It therefore prevents or reverses dehydration and replaces lost salts in conditions such as diarrhoea and vomiting.ORS is available in the market in a powder form in sachets/ readymade solutions or one can also easily make it at home as well.

All we need to know:
How to make the ORS drink which is available in powder form?

4.Put the contents of the ORS packet in a clean container. Check the packet for directions and add the amount of clean water as indicated. Too little water could make the diarrhea worse.

5.Add water only. Do not add ORS to milk, soup, fruit juice or any soft drinks. Do not add sugar.

6.Stir well, and feed it to the child from a clean cup. Do not use a bottle.

World Breastfeeding Week is an annual celebration which is being held every year from 1to 7 August in many countries all over the world and since past three years ADK Hospital has continued the celebration of this week. World Breastfeeding week is celebrated with the goal to promote exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life which gives tremendous benefits to baby as well as to the mother.

The World Health Organization (WHO), American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and the World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action (WABA) recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life and then supplemented breastfeeding up to two years or more.

Theme for World Breastfeeding Week 2016 is “A Key to Sustainable Development”, which is focusing on the importance of breastfeeding and promote breastfeeding as key element in getting us to think about how to value our wellbeing from the start of life, how to respect each other and care for the world we share.

Below are the activities initiated by nurses in ADK Hospital for celebrating world breastfeeding week 2016.

  • Breastfeeding refresher workshop for nurses- 1st – 2nd August
  • Visit postnatal inpatients for breastfeeding counseling – 1st – 7th August
  • Display posters & breastfeeding week theme at Information Counter- 1st – 7th August
  • Inauguration of breastfeeding booklet & leaflet – 2nd August
  • Visit postnatal mothers who are planned to get discharged from hospital to give breastfeeding counseling – 3rd August
  • Breastfeeding quiz between inter-nursing units – 4th August
  • Session on breastfeeding for antenatal, postnatal mothers & for ADK staff – 6th August
  • Breastfeeding committee launching – 7th August

Department of Paediatrics at RRMCH ,Well equipped department with skilled pediatrician teaching staff and state of the art ICU care

Inauguaration of Rajarajeswari Centre For Diabeties in Children

Center for Diabetes in Children was inaugurated at the pediatric OPD block of RRMCH on 8/9/17. This centre caters to all children with diabetes with a multidisciplinary approach. This centre provides free insulin, glucometer and glucometer strips on a regular basis for underprivileged children with TIDM. It gives an opportunity to monitor the compliance to medication for all children. The centre also impacts education towards management of diabetes along with nutritional advice. This is a part of the project named “Changing Diabetes in Children” which is a global initiative. The centre at RRMCH is named as Rajarajeswari’s centre for Diatbetes in Children (RCDIC) which will be coordinated by Dr. R.Prema.

The Chairman A.C. Shanmugam has not left any stone unturned in providing services to the poor and needy and this adds another feather to his cap. Similarly last year Human Milk Bank, the first of its kind in Karnataka was opened to cater the needs of neonates till the mothers can recover enough milk.
To commemorate the opening of this centre, Department of Pediatrics, RRMCH, has organized a CME on changing diabetes in children helping all doctors understand the detailed and latest management of such children. Also an elaborate nutritional exhibition which throws much light and knowledge on nutritional aspects of TIDM including carbohydrate counts and glycemic index which is apt for today’s modern children’s lifestyle was displayed. This impacted practical knowledge of eating the right food. During CME our chairman Sri A.C. Shanmugham has promised to provide infrastructure and investigations including treatment for underprivileged children with Type 1 diabetes in pediatric ward.

The program was huge success with more than 200 doctors attending and the awareness of nutrition imbibed by them.

Dr. Adarsh E
Prof and HOD
Department of Pediatrics RRMCH

The Technique of Knocking Out Genes – A Sneak Peek

Knocking out genes is a technique which researchers and scientists use when the want to find out
which gene is responsible for production of which protein. In a human body there are around 20,500 different genes that each gene is responsible for making a protein because they are known to be the building blocks for different components of the body be it muscles or bones or brain and more. Apparently, our body is made up proteins. Every gene is responsible for producing a different type of protein and the knocking out technique only helps scientists figure out who is responsible for what.

The Technique of Knocking Out Genes - A Sneak Peek

Knocking out a Gene
The scientists first find out genes with some serious mutation or mistake or create one if needed. These genes are dud genes and do not contribute a bit in production of protein. Now, this gene is injected into the DNA of a healthy cell. The scientists attach a tag called reporter gene to it for identification purpose of whether they have been accepted by the cell. Another identification of reporter genes is that the proteins they produce often glow in blue or green. The scientists apparently fool the DNA in a way. A DNA a we know is made up of long strand of genes and these genes can get damaged but the DNA has an inbuilt mechanism to fix the issue. With the help of a cellular tool box the scientist insert the knocked out gene into the DNA. They do this very smartly by making it look like a perfect copy of the surrounding gene that is to be replaced in that DNA. This disguise of sorts fold the DNA repair system and its swaps the dud gene for the old healthy gene, thus knocking out the original gene.

Some times scientists do not have to swap the gene fully. They can simply insert the reporter gene into the DNA they wish to get rid of, randomly. Now, the reporter gene is wedged in the middle of the old gene. Now, there is an all new piece of DNA inside and if a cell goes to read the gene, the instructions would not make sense to the cell due to its presence there. It would not use the gene to make a protein.

The scientist keep a watch on the process. They observe the working in case it is yeast or bacterium but if it is an embryo, scientists observe on how the animal or plant growth differs from other normal ones.
Today, scientists use different techniques to knock out the genes of any organism they want to. It could be mice or bacteria or for that matter even plants that have knocked out genes. Well, scientists today can knock out even human cells growing in the labs.

Rajarajeswari Medical College and Hospital – MOTTO: Availability of medical facilities is of utmost importance. We aim to serve the healthcare requirements needs to the medically unreached population. Through this, we provide quality medical, paramedical, nursing and allied healthcare education, excellent and compassionate hospital services with state of the art facilities as well as to carry out health research for the betterment of the humankind in tune with the holistic values of the institution.

*source from the internet

Hopes on for Vaccines Offering Lifelong Protection against Flu

Vaccines Offering Lifelong Protection against Flu-

Flu as we all know is a common condition that all of us encounter many a times during our stay on the earth or say our life span. You would rarely find a human who has not been a victim of this health condition. But, there is some good news around this condition. A recent study of a new vaccine containing ancestral flue virus genes is a ray of hope for researchers in the direction of life long protection against flu.

The vaccine was tested on mice and gave 100 percent results. The vaccine was so effective that even after being given nine different flu virus dozes of lethal nature they survived. The best part was they didn’t even fall sick.
Comparatively those mice that were given the traditional shots of flu did fall sick after these lethal doses were given to them and even died. Though, the study is primarily conducted on mice and it would be too early to say how it worked on humans, there is definitely a ray of hope. The hope that one day a universal flu vaccine is developed that would provide long term rather life long protection against flu viruses.

Though even after trying out the researchers still haven’t really succeeded in creating a vaccine that could offer life long protection because of the reason that flu viruses mutate fast. A recent study though used a different approach. The vaccine they created had ancestral and consensus flu genes from four main strain types namely H1 to H5. The delivery of these genes was done using adenovirus, the one responsible for causing common cold but an altered version of it that was harmless and had the ability to carry ancestral genes.

The results as mentioned were affirmative as these mice survived heavy doses of H1N1, H3N1, H3N2 and H5N1 which can easily kill the mice. Apparently 100% of the vaccinated mice survived.

Well, its too early to confirm the success but further study on different animals will certainly help the researchers determine the efficacy of the vaccine in terms of long term protection.

Know more about Advanced skill center of Rajarajeswari Medical College