Chronic Kidney Disease

Chronic Kidney disease or CKD is s result of loss of kidney function over a period of time. Practically, the kidneys fail, if you may say so. There are though, five stages of CKD depending upon the severity. When the kidneys fail the waste, water and toxic substances accumulate in the body because the kidneys are not able to excrete them. This can further result in conditions like acidosis (excessive acidity of body fluids), disorders related to fatty acids and cholesterol, anemia and high blood pressure.

Chronic Kidney Disease

While Stage five is obviously the end stage known as kidney or renal failure which results in complete kidney function failure. At this stage the person needs dialysis to survive or kidney transplantation.
Acute kidney failure can also lead to loss of kidney function but it’s faster over a period of few days or weeks. But, this condition is reversible many times and there is a possibility of complete recovery of kidney function. But sometimes, it could end up as irreversible and require dialysis.

Here’s a run-down the stages of chronic kidney diseases.
1. Slight damage with normal or increased filtration      GFR > 90
2. Mild decrease in kidney function                                GFR range 60-90
3. Moderate decrease in kidney function                       GFR range 30 -59
4. Severe decrease in kidney function                           GFR range 15-29
5. Kidney Failure                                                            GFR <15 / Dialysis

To check for kidney damage, you need to undergo a few tests that include checking the level of waste products like creatinine and urea, in blood and urine test for abnormalities that indicate kidney damage cause. You may have to undergo an ultrasound for kidney structure assessment and biopsy for determining the cause of kidney problem. The diagnosis is based on results of Glomerular filtration rate and includes details like patient’s age, gender, race and serum creatinine levels.


Some of the common risk factors of Chronic kidney disease include smoking, hypertension, obesity and diabetes mellitus.

After course of treatment is decided after determining the cause of the disease. Some kidney complications are treatable while some are not. The treatment procedure includes controlling the symptoms, reducing the complications and slowing the progression process through tested methods. In case the kidneys are severely damage then end stage treatment is provided. The medications used include those for reducing cholesterol levels, treating anemia and high blood pressure, reducing the swelling and protecting your bones. You might also be required to go on low protein diet to minimize wastage in blood.

If your kidneys fail then the only treatment options available are dialysis or transplant. Dialysis is the process of removal of waste products from the body artificially with the help of a machine viz hemodialysis or a thin tube (catheter) fitted in the abdomen and dialysis solution that absorbs the waste plus excess fluids and is drained out. viz peritoneal dialysis. Kidney transplant on the other side is an expensive but better procedure because it involves replacing your kidney with a healthy kidney of a donor surgically. It could be of a deceased or living person. Though, medications after the procedure are to be taken life long for your body to accept the organ through life but no dialysis.

Fungal Infections – An Over View

Fungal infections are very common part of our day to day lives. When our immune system is unable to handle the invasions of infection causing fungus, is when we get prone to the condition called fungal infection. There are usually two kinds of fungi that reside on human body. The helpful one and the harmful one. The invasion of harmful fungi causes infections as they cannot be killed easily and can rebound as well.Fungal Infections

The most common types of fungal infections in humans include -
Ringworm – This infection is caused by a fungus that lives on dead tissues of skin, nails and hair. It is also responsible for causing athlete’s foot and jock itch but if it occurs on other parts of the body it is known as ringworm. Generally, doctors

Jock itch – A mildly contagious infection by nature, it is caused by fungus that breed in damp and warm regions of the body like groin, inner thighs and buttocks. It causes redness of skin accompanied by itching, chafing or burning. Doctors usually prescribe some topical anti-fungal ointments and advise patients to maintain proper body hygiene.

Athlete’s foot – As the name suggests this infection is very common with sports people and athletes. The reason for it being so common with athletes is breeding environments like shoes, sports equipments, locker rooms, socks. Though it can happen to anyone as well. Athletes feet is also treated with topical anti-fungal oinments but some serious infections need oral medicinal intake as well.

Now, that we are aware of some of the common form of fungal infections let us run down some nutrients that can help us fight fungal infections and are commonly available.

Garlic – Garlic does limit the growth of fungus called candida to a large extent as it is highly sensitive to particularly the purified extract of garlic called allyl alcohol that produced oxidative stress thus supressing the growth of it.

Tea Tree Oil – This oil is effective on candida and various other fungal isolates. It treats candida and paronychia infections effectively as well. The tea tree oil disrupts the yeast cell wall thus inhibiting its growth.

Another way of to protect yourself from the unhealthy fungus, maintaining good population of the healthy fungus particularly to avoid vaginal infections, in women. Yogurt and pro-biotics are a good source of friendly bacteria in the vagina or rectum. Even fructooligosaccharides, a form of sugar is known to boost the levels of the good bacteria in the body, so adding one teaspoon daily to your diet should help you a lot in proliferation of friendly bacteria.

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