Dengue Is Back! – How To Deal With It?

As almost 500 cases crop up in Dakshin Kannada or Mangaluru, Dengue is back this season and with a big bang for sure in Karnataka. Already four people have succumbed to the deadly fever that is a result of the Aedes mosquitos. Unike malaria mosquitos, Dengue mosquitos breed inside the house in clean water. A viral infection, Dengue is at its peak in the monsoon season every year. The most common symptoms of dengue include headache, swollen lymph nodes, rashes, exhaustion and high fever. The main characteristics of dengue include high fever, rashes and headache.

The acute phase of the fever can last upto two weeks. The more serious and life threatening condition of Dengue is Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) occurring mostly in under 10 years children. This complication can cause circulatory collapse, hemorrhage and abdominal pain. The symptoms often occur after 3 days to 15 days of the mosquito bite. The weather conditions also are responsible to an extent for breeding the dengue mosquitos. Outbreaks are more common in tropical and subtropical areas. Though the condition is not contagious, if a mosquito bites a dengue infected, it does contract the dengue virus too and spread it onward to other people.


Thus the Aedes mosquito is considered the vector or transmitter and humans as the source of infection. As mentioned Dengue Hemorrhagic fever or DHF is a shock syndrome of dengue that mostly affects children under 10 years of age. DHF starts abruptly with consistent fever accompanied with headache. Other symptoms include cough, nausea, sore throat, and vomiting as well as abdominal pain. The shock occurs around 2 to 6 days after the onset of symptoms with sudden collapse, mouth blueness, weak pulse to name a few. Bleeding is also a common possibility and DHF requires close monitoring. There is no particular treatment and only intensive care with blood transfusion and oxygen provision as well as immediate fluid replacement are some of the treatments. If proper treatment is provided the mortality rate could be less but it could rise to as high as 20% if not treated properly.

The best idea is to take care around your house and avoid travelling to mosquito prone areas. Check for water storage possibilities for breeding mosquitos and treat appropriately.

*Sourced from the Internet

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Hodgkin Lymphoma – A Sneak Peek

One of the common cancers across the world, Hodgkin Lymphoma affects the lymphatic system of the body. The cancer causes the cells in the lymphatic systems grow uncontrollably and spread across the body. There are mainly two types of lymphoma cancers, Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL) and the other Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL). The latter is much more common as compared to the first one. The treatment is different for both and hence it’s vital to know what kind of lymphoma you suffer from.

Hodgkin’s Lymphoma usually occurs around 20 to 40 years of age of after 55. The risk factors for this condition include a family history with the condition and a history of Epstein Barr infection. The condition is most common in between 15 and 30 year olds and particularly males.

The diagnosis requires a physical examination and blood tests, imaging tests or biopsy if lymph node as well as bone marrow if needed. The treatment is based on the diagnosis and the stage of cancer. The Hodgkin’s lymphoma has four stages of cancers.

Cancer Stages

Stage 1 – It’s the preliminary stage of cancer when it is limited to the single organ or lymph node only.

Stage 2 – If the cancer has spread through other lymph nodes and another nearby organ as well, it is stage 2.

Stage 3 – Stage 3 cancer is when the cancer spreads to lymph nodes both above and below the diaphragm.

Stage 4 – Known to be the most advanced stage of Hodgkin’s lymphoma, Stage IV is when the cancer is spread through lymph nodes as well as other parts of the body like lungs, bones and liver.

If diagnosed at an early stage the cancer can be cured to a great extent and even the life expectancy levels increase. Though, accurate diagnosis is the key and it requires an expert pathologist to do so because there have been a lot of cases of misdiagnosis based on biopsy tests due to lack of experience. So, a good idea is to take second opinion even if it is diagnosed.


Based on the diagnosis, the treatment involves chemotherapy sessions that uses chemicals to treat the affected cells. Post the chemotherapy, radiation therapy is carried out. At times they are done in combination. While chemotherapy can be done using pill or even through veins, radiation therapy involves usage of high energy rays like protons and X-rays to kill the cancer causing cells. The therapy is spread over several weeks and is carried out daily for half an hour period. Another option that could work is bone marrow transplant but there is a possibility of underlying infection risk. Targeted therapy is another kind of treatment that focuses on targeting specific cells and immunotherapy works in activating your immune system to fight these cancer cells. If these treatment are of no use then genetic mutations is another way that involves using drugs that target specific mutations of the lymphoma cells. Targeted therapy is the latest in cancer treatment options and is under research.

*Sourced from the Internet

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Thunderclap Headache – Know More About This Sudden Intense Painful Condition

This is rare kind of headache that starts suddenly out of the blue and is an experience you won’t forget. The intensity of it is very high, something you would not have experienced ever. It lasts for a while but that few minutes could be to painful. No wonder, it is known to be worst headache in one’s life.

young woman who have a headache

Though many of us might just forget about it once it is gone, it is advisable to get yourself checked if it happens to you because it could be life threatening. Even if it is not, better to visit a doctor. The symptoms of thunderclap headache include-

  1. Sudden high intensity headache
  2. Vomiting or nausea
  3. Headache with neck or lower back pain
  4. Dizziness and losing consciousness
  5. Experiencing the worst ever headache

The intensity of pain of a thunderclap headache can reach its zenith is a matter of 60 seconds. Sometimes it just goes away forever while at times it could last over a period of seven days. There is a difference between thunderclap headaches and migraine but thunderclap headaches that are not categorized as life threatening are considered as a kind of migraine only.

Triggers / Causes

A thunderclap headache is known to be the result of bleeding in the brain or a symptoms of subarachnoid hemorrhage. The life threatening causes for this headache include –

  1. Internal bleeding due to rupture of blood vessel in brain
  2. Ischemic stroke
  3. Hemorrhagic stroke
  4. Inflammation of blood vessel
  5. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome

The common triggers though could include bowel movement strain, injury, sexual or physical activity as well.

*Sourced from the Internet

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Dyslexia – Common Traits

As a child Bollywood actor Abhishek Bachchan suffered from Dyslexia. It is a reading disorder amongst children and is hard to detect as well. The Bollywood actor who has worked in over 50 films had issues with reading, spellings, sound of words, number difficulties and more. Irrespective, the actor did battle it out. The information about the suffering from dyslexia in childhood was revealed by none other than Aamir Khan during the release of his movie ‘Taare Zameen Par’.

Dyslexia has nothing to do with mental retardation, lack of intelligence or brain damage. It isn’t a disease as well. It’s just that children with dyslexia find it difficult to read. The simple solution to this is the use of blue or yellow filter glasses in order to help deal with the visual problems.

Here are a few common traits of dyslexia

  1. Poor self-esteem – Uses compensatory strategies to hide weaknesses. Reading and testing sparks emotions and frustrations.
  2. Day Dreamer – Day dreams often and seems to lose track of time or get zoned out easily
  3. Attention deficit – Cannot concentrate and gets distracted easily
  4. High IQ – Not necessarily does well in academics but high IQ and ability to score well in oral as that against written
  5. Confused – Reading, writing, letters, spellings and verbal explanations tend to confuse a lot.
  6. Writing Difficulties – Cannot copy or write properly and holds the pencil in an unusual manner.
  7. Artist – Should possess talent around sports, music, drama, mechanics, building or engineering.
  8. Sequence Confusion – A problem with remembering sequence of things
  9. Word Processing Issues – Problem around seeing differences and similarities between words and letters.
  10. Foreign language – Difficulty learning foreign language.

The symptoms include inability to ready by kindergarten or first grade but kids with dyslexia find it difficult to grasp even the basics of reading. They are also at a high risk of Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

*Sourced from the Internet

Encephalitis (CHAMKI Fever) The Deadly Fever That Has Killed Over 150 Children In Bihar And Jharkhand Already

The news of around 150 children dead due to the chamki fever is already a topic of concern present day. The Supreme Court also has taken notice of this serious or grave situation and directed Center to immediately form a medical expert team for the treatment of children having AES.

An inflammation of brain, encephalitis commonly known as chamki fever is the inflammation of brain. It is caused by viral infection and affects the nervous system. There are two main types of Encephalitis namely Primary and Secondary. This fever usually occurs in kids and youngsters below 15 years of age.

The primary is caused due to direct viral infection to the brain while secondary is a result of a weak immune system and can be a result of infection in any part of the body. Presently, there’s an outbreak of this fever in Bihar and Jharkhand. Recently, even Bengal has reported three cases of AES or Chamki of which one is critical.


AES is known to be a viral infection but can occur due to mosquito borne viruses, Zika or Nipah Virus, Rabis virus, childhood infections, enteroviruses and herpes virus as well. In India the most commonly known AES causing virus is the Japanese Encephalitis (JE) as almost 5 -35% cases are that of JE Virus AES. Though, this year only two cases are due to the JE Virus and exact cause of so many deaths is not known. What is known is that the deaths were caused by hypoglycemia (low blood sugar levels)


At the initial stage the symptoms are similar to mild flu and include fever, headache, fatigue, muscle or joint pain. Though in the later or severe stage it leads to hallucinations, agitation, confusion, muscle weakness, hearing difficulties paralysis, sensation loss, vomiting, poor eating, body stiffness, skull bulging and more.


There is not medicine yet for this fever and the mild one can be brought down through adequate rest and continuous fluid intake. Drugs like Tylenol, Aleve and Advil also can be used. Medications like Foscavir, Cytoven and Zovirax can be used for the viral Encephalitis only on prescription basis. Do not consume any medications with Doctors consult. At times supportive care like breathing assistance, intravenous fluids to keep the person hydrated, anti-convulsant and anti-inflammatory drugs against seizures and swelling could be required.


Prevention is always better and hence to avoid getting this condition try to maintain hygiene at home, clean your hands properly after you visit the toilet and before eating food. Also, drink clean water and use mosquito nets and repellants when sleeping.

*Sourced from the Internet

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Nipah Virus Again On The Prowl In Kerala – All You Need To Know

Nipah Virus is again on the Prowl in Kerala. It’s just a year back that this Virus created a Havoc in the state and went on a killing Spree. The Virus with a fatality rate of over 88% killed 21 people of the 23 cases that were registered in Kerala in 2018 and scared the hell out of the citizens. This year already 5 people are suspected to have contracted the NIV and under isolation already. So, primarily, it is a good idea to avoid travel to and around the region where the Nipah outbreak has just started. Also, here’s all you need to know about this deadly condition. The Nipah infection is associated with Pteropus Bats genus as natural hosts and was first discovered in Malaysia and Singapore among pig farmers. It occurred due to close contact with pigs and is also known to spread through infected fruit bats besides humans and others like dogs, cats, rodents and horses as well. Though, the most likely ones are known to be humans, bats and pigs. The mortality rates in pigs is not high inspite of the fact that the infection rate is In India, the first NIV outbreak occurred in Siliguri West Bengal in the year 2001, taking lives of 45 people out of the 68 detected. Then it surfaced again in 2007, killing all the 5 people known to have contracted the virus.

There is no denial that the Nipah Virus is highly fatal and humans contract it through either the body fluids of pigs, exposure to secretion of sick pigs or corpses. Human to Human contraction occurs through body fluids, saliva of the patient and corpse as well. The fruit bat to human infection is known to spread by consuming raw date palm sap that are contaminated through the saliva or the urine of bats. Even livestock that feeds on wild fruits contaminated via bats with NIV.

Nipah infection can be variable as far as symptoms are concerned right from being asymptomatic to getting fata encephalitis or acute respiratory infection. As of now there is no vaccine or treatment available for humans as well as animals. Even the 2018 Annual Review of WHO R&D Blueprint list has a mention that this condition needs an emergency and speedy research as well as development. The only way at present is to make people aware about the risk factors and the precautionary measures to be taken in order to avoid the outbreak.

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*Sourced from the Internet